今年八月，新GRE粉墨登场，全球考生翘首以待。改革后的GRE到底新在何处，尤其是阅读部分，到底有怎样的新手段，估计很多学生心中都有些忐忑。看完本文后，我相信很多人都会大为宽心，新GRE阅读其实没有变出什么新花样，只不过大量模仿了GMAT逻辑题的出题方式罢了。一言以蔽之：新GRE阅读 = 老GRE阅读 + GMAT逻辑。
In the United States between 1850 and 1880, the number of farmers continued to increase, but at a rate lower than that of the general population
Which of the following statements directly contradicts the information presented above?
The number of farmers in the general population increased slightly in the 30 years between 1850 and 1880.
The rate of growth of the United States labor force and the rate of growth of the general population rose simultaneously in the 30 years between 1850 and 1880.
The proportion of farmers in the United States labor force remained constant in the 30 years between 1850 and 1880.
The proportion of farmers in the United States labor force decreased from 64 percent in 1850 to 49 percent in 1880.
The proportion of farmers in the general population increased from 68 percent in 1850 to 72 percent in 1880.
In the past ten years, there have been several improvements in mountain-climbing equipment. These improvements have made the sport both safer and more enjoyable for experienced climbers. Despite these improvements, however, the rate of mountain-climbing injuries has doubled in past ten years.
Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the apparent discrepancy presented in the passage?
Many climbers, lulled into a false sense of security, use the new equipment to attempt climbing feats of which they are not capable.
Some mountain-climbing injuries are caused by unforeseeable weather conditions.
Mountain climbing, although a dangerous sport, does not normally result in injury to the experienced climber.
In the past ten years there have been improvements in mountain-climbing techniques as well as in mountain-climbing equipment.
Although the rate of mountain-climbing injuries has increased, the rate of mountain-climbing deaths has not changed.
At a certain period in Earth’s history, its atmosphere contained almost no oxygen, although plants were producing vast quantities of oxygen. As a way of reconciling these two facts, scientists have hypothesized that nearly all of the oxygen being produced was taken up by iron on Earth’s surface. Clearly, however, this explanation is inadequate. New studies show that the amount of iron on Earth’s surface was not sufficient to absorb anywhere near as much oxygen as was being produced. Therefore, something in addition to the iron on Earth’s surface must have absorbed much of the oxygen produced by plant life.
In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
The first is a claim made by the argument in support of a certain position; the second is that position.
The first is a judgment made by the argument about a certain explanation; the second is that explanation.
The first expresses the argument’s dismissal of an objection to the position it seeks to establish; the second is that position.
The first sums up the argument’s position with regard to a certain hypothesis; the second provides grounds for that position.
The first is a concession by the argument that its initial formulation of the position it seeks to establish requires modification; the second presents that position in a modified form.
Sparva, unlike Treland’s other provinces, requires automobile insurers to pay for any medical treatments sought by some one who has been involved in an accident; in the other provinces, insurers pay for nonemergency treatment only if they preapprove the treatment. Clearly, Sparva’s less restrictive policy must be the explanation for the fact that altogether insurers there pay for far more treatments after accidents than insurers in other provinces, even though Sparva does not have the largest population.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthen the argument?
Car insurance costs more in Sparva than in any other province.
The cost of medical care in Sparva is higher than the national average.
Difference insurance companies have different standards for determining what constitutes emergency treatment.
Fewer insurance companies operate in Sparva than in any other province.
There are fewer traffic accidents annually in Sparva than in any of the provinces of comparable or great population.
表面上看，这就是一道GRE阅读中传统的加强题，只不过原来在长文或短文章中出现，而现在微文中了。但深入体会，发现其加强的思路在靠近GMAT的考法。过去对原文推理的加强一般都停留在对论据或结论的支持上，这当然是比较肤浅的。而这道题，其论据（Sparva’s less restrictive policy）与其结论（insurers in Sparva pay for far more treatments）都是原文所引述的事实，无需支持。所以对该推理的加强就在于对其因果关系的支持，这正是GMAT加强题的精髓，同时更是对人推理能力的考察。