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  • 新GRE阅读揭秘:老GRE阅读加GMAT逻辑来解题
  • 来源:新东方    时间:2011-4-26   编辑:admin    
  • 今年八月,新GRE粉墨登场,全球考生翘首以待。改革后的GRE到底新在何处,尤其是阅读部分,到底有怎样的新手段,估计很多学生心中都有些忐忑。看完本文后,我相信很多人都会大为宽心,新GRE阅读其实没有变出什么新花样,只不过大量模仿了GMAT逻辑题的出题方式罢了。一言以蔽之:新GRE阅读 = 老GRE阅读 + GMAT逻辑。

    大家都知道,老GRE阅读从篇幅上分有长文章和短文章;而在新GRE阅读中不但保留原来的长文和短文,还增加了只有一到四句话的超短文章,我将其称之为微文。微文不但微小,还有微妙之感。试看下例(新GRE官方指南 P71):

    In the United States between 1850 and 1880, the number of farmers continued to increase, but at a rate lower than that of the general population

    Which of the following statements directly contradicts the information presented above?

    The number of farmers in the general population increased slightly in the 30 years between 1850 and 1880.

    The rate of growth of the United States labor force and the rate of growth of the general population rose simultaneously in the 30 years between 1850 and 1880.

    The proportion of farmers in the United States labor force remained constant in the 30 years between 1850 and 1880.

    The proportion of farmers in the United States labor force decreased from 64 percent in 1850 to 49 percent in 1880.

    The proportion of farmers in the general population increased from 68 percent in 1850 to 72 percent in 1880.

    仔细考量这道微文题,明显感到这不是传统的阅读理解,而是对思维的考察,这就是微文题目的特点。ETS正是要通过微文题来实现其改革的两大目标:强调复杂推理能力和强调量化推理能力。过去的GRE因为在这两方面的欠缺,导致了大多商学院只认可GMAT对能力的测试。而如今,GRE为了与GMAT竞争,故而自我完善,弥补欠缺。而且ETS还选择了一条最取巧的道路——模仿GMAT的逻辑题。

    比如说(新GRE官方指南 P313):

    In the past ten years, there have been several improvements in mountain-climbing equipment. These improvements have made the sport both safer and more enjoyable for experienced climbers. Despite these improvements, however, the rate of mountain-climbing injuries has doubled in past ten years.

    Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the apparent discrepancy presented in the passage?

    Many climbers, lulled into a false sense of security, use the new equipment to attempt climbing feats of which they are not capable.

    Some mountain-climbing injuries are caused by unforeseeable weather conditions.

    Mountain climbing, although a dangerous sport, does not normally result in injury to the experienced climber.

    In the past ten years there have been improvements in mountain-climbing techniques as well as in mountain-climbing equipment.

    Although the rate of mountain-climbing injuries has increased, the rate of mountain-climbing deaths has not changed.

    即文中出现了一个奇怪或矛盾的现象,题目要求给予解释或调和。这在GMAT逻辑中是司空见惯的解释题。

    又比如(新GRE官方指南 P310):

    At a certain period in Earth’s history, its atmosphere contained almost no oxygen, although plants were producing vast quantities of oxygen. As a way of reconciling these two facts, scientists have hypothesized that nearly all of the oxygen being produced was taken up by iron on Earth’s surface. Clearly, however, this explanation is inadequate. New studies show that the amount of iron on Earth’s surface was not sufficient to absorb anywhere near as much oxygen as was being produced. Therefore, something in addition to the iron on Earth’s surface must have absorbed much of the oxygen produced by plant life.

    In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

    The first is a claim made by the argument in support of a certain position; the second is that position.

    The first is a judgment made by the argument about a certain explanation; the second is that explanation.

    The first expresses the argument’s dismissal of an objection to the position it seeks to establish; the second is that position.

    The first sums up the argument’s position with regard to a certain hypothesis; the second provides grounds for that position.

    The first is a concession by the argument that its initial formulation of the position it seeks to establish requires modification; the second presents that position in a modified form.

    初次接触这种BOLDFACE题的同学,一定是一头雾水,不知从何下手。但这在GMAT中已经考了十年有余了,早已总结出非常有效的破解方式,只要抓住几个关键词,就能把答案迅速遴选出来。

    当然在原有的GRE阅读中也有着重考察思维的题目,比如会有加强题和削弱题,但其难度远小于GMAT逻辑中的同类题型。但在新GRE中,情况似乎发生了变化。请看下题(新GRE官方指南 P321):

    Sparva, unlike Treland’s other provinces, requires automobile insurers to pay for any medical treatments sought by some one who has been involved in an accident; in the other provinces, insurers pay for nonemergency treatment only if they preapprove the treatment. Clearly, Sparva’s less restrictive policy must be the explanation for the fact that altogether insurers there pay for far more treatments after accidents than insurers in other provinces, even though Sparva does not have the largest population.

    Which of the following, if true, most strengthen the argument?

    Car insurance costs more in Sparva than in any other province.

    The cost of medical care in Sparva is higher than the national average.

    Difference insurance companies have different standards for determining what constitutes emergency treatment.

    Fewer insurance companies operate in Sparva than in any other province.

    There are fewer traffic accidents annually in Sparva than in any of the provinces of comparable or great population.

    表面上看,这就是一道GRE阅读中传统的加强题,只不过原来在长文或短文章中出现,而现在微文中了。但深入体会,发现其加强的思路在靠近GMAT的考法。过去对原文推理的加强一般都停留在对论据或结论的支持上,这当然是比较肤浅的。而这道题,其论据(Sparva’s less restrictive policy)与其结论(insurers in Sparva pay for far more treatments)都是原文所引述的事实,无需支持。所以对该推理的加强就在于对其因果关系的支持,这正是GMAT加强题的精髓,同时更是对人推理能力的考察。

    总而言之,新GRE阅读的确是改革了,但乏“新”可陈,更没有什么创造之举。因为我在新东方同时教GRE阅读和GMAT逻辑,所以一眼就能看破其中的玄机。不过这也给我带来一个问题,这个寒假上新GRE阅读之时,每每讲到微文题,我的神智有些困惑:我到底是在GRE班上课,还是在GMAT班中讲解呢?但我心中清楚的是: 三尺讲台之下都是向往lol雷火杯的莘莘学子,我不由得又充满了激情。

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